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Acceptable Use Policy AUP : Written rules and responsibilities, usually published by a network operator, that establish the conditions under which users may access network services. Breaches of an AUP may result in the termination of user privileges. Schools often request that the students and their parents sign a form agreeing to the appropriate use of the Internet and to the imposition of penalties for the misuse of the Internet.

Access: 1. The process of choosing and formulating headings for a bibliographic record. Also refers to the larger processes of providing bibliographic access i. The process of using a computer directory or file. The retrieval of data from a disk drive. Ability to communicate with, enter, or approach. Main entries, added entries, and subject entries are examples of access points.

See also Added entry, Main entry, and Subject entry. Access time: The amount of time required to retrieve data from the internal memory of a computer or from secondary storage such as a floppy disk. See also Random access memory and Response time. Access to Electronic Information, Services, and Networks: An interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights prepared by the American Library Association that states that users should not be restricted or denied access for expressing or receiving constitutionally protected speech and that electronic information and services should be equally, readily, and equitably available to all library users.

It includes collection development, resources, and services, and describes how intellectual freedom principles apply to these elements. Accession book: A book or ledger that maintains a record of bibliographic and ordering information as well as the accession number. Automation of library media centers has eliminated the need for accession books. Accession number: A number assigned to each item as it is received in the library media center.

Accession numbers may consist of continuous numbering such as 10,, 10,, 10, or a coded system generally referring to the year and the sequence of receipt such as , , The numbers are recorded in an accession book. In automated library media centers, the barcode replaces the accession number. Accompanying materials: Materials intended for use in conjunction with the primary cataloged item.

Accountability: A concept in education that holds a school system responsible for student performance. Accountable talk: Discussion that is purposeful and polite as well as discussion that demonstrates reasoning and increases knowledge. A library media specialist uses this method of speaking when asking students to discuss their informationseeking activities such as explaining their reasoning, justifying 3 their conclusions, and substantiating the sources used to obtain the information.

Accreditation: Approval of a program of study or an institution for meeting certain standards set by an external organization. For example, the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education accredits undergraduate and graduate teacher education programs. State departments of education may accredit an individual school or a school system. Regional associations may accredit K schools or postsecondary institutions.

The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools is an example of such a regional association. See also Accreditation standards. Accreditation standards: The requirements that accrediting agencies establish and review for a program of study or an institution. The accrediting agencies use these requirements to determine if approval accreditation is warranted.

These tests are generally norm-referenced, multiple-choice tests, and the results are used to compare the scores of students and schools with those of other students and schools. The Stanford Achievement Test is an example. See also Norm-referenced assessment. Acquisition: The process of obtaining hardware and resources for a library collection. Materials may be obtained through purchase, gifts, or lease plans. Action research: A form of research that applies the scientific method to the solution of practical problems.

In education, practitioners investigate educational problems in actual educational settings. A problem is identified, and relevant data are analyzed. The focus is to improve school practices. Active learning: Activities that actively engage the student. Learning is believed to increase if a student is actively involved in a learning activity rather than listening to a teacher lecture or completing a worksheet. Acting out a play or using math manipulatives are examples. See also Constructive teaching and Manipulative.

Once the task is completed, the committee is dissolved. Adapter: A device used to achieve compatibility between two items of equipment such as a connecting cord between a videocassette recorder and a television. ADD: See Attention deficit disorder. Added entry: Any catalog entry except the main entry or subject entry. Added entries consist of joint authors, illustrators, editors, compilers, translators, and series.

See also Access point, Corporate entry, and Title entry. Addendum: Additional material added to a book. The plural form of the word is addenda. Address: The location of an electronic mail or Internet site. Administrator: The head of an agency; for example, a principal of a school or the superintendent of a school system. See also Superintendent of schools. Adult education: An educational program designed for adults, offering them the opportunity to pursue knowledge and skills for personal or job-related growth, or both. Advanced placement classes AP classes : College-level courses offered in many high schools to above-average students.

If a student attains a sufficient score on a standardized AP test, most colleges will award credit for the equivalent college course. Advisory committee: A school-wide committee formed to assist the library media specialist by suggesting resources for purchase. The committee typically includes teacher, student, and parent representation. Affective domain: One of the three domains included in a taxonomy developed by Benjamin Bloom.

This domain includes behaviors that relate to emotions, feelings, and attitudes. Alex Awards: Awards that honor the top ten books enjoyed by young adults ages 12 through 18 that were published in the preceding year. These annual awards began in See also Edwards Award. Almanac: A summary of data and statistics used to answer ready reference questions. Both general almanacs and subject almanacs are published and are available for library use.

See also Ready reference question. Alpha testing: Initial testing of new computer software conducted by the manufacturer. The second test is beta testing, which is performed by users in real-life situations. Alphabet: Letters or characters that identify a certain language and in which that language is written. Alphabet book: A juvenile book designed to teach children the alphabet. These books help children to learn the names and shapes of letters, and they can also help children to identify or name the objects portrayed in the illustrations.

See also Illustration. Alphanumeric characters: A set of characters found on a keyboard. These characters include the alphabet A—Z , numbers 0—9 , punctuation marks, and other keyboard symbols. See also Character. Alternative school: A type of school that does not follow the design of a conventional school. These nonconventional schools may be public or private with a curriculum that meets the needs of the students enrolled. Magnet schools as well as schools for the gifted and talented or for disruptive students are examples.

See also Magnet school. ALU: See Arithmetic logic unit. It advocates research, professionalism, leadership, and continuing education in the school library media field. ABA is devoted to meeting the needs of its core members—independently owned bookstores with storefront locations—through advocacy, education, research, and information dissemination. The organization supports free speech, literacy, and programs that encourage children to read. American College Testing Program ACT : A nonprofit educational organization that offers several services related to college admissions.

One service is the ACT, which is a test many colleges and universities use to determine admissions. The group works at the state and local levels with teachers and other educational employees on issues such as organizing, collective bargaining, public relations, and other educational matters. Founded in , it is the oldest and largest national library association in the world. The membership represents state, academic, public, school, and special libraries.

Members receive American Libraries, a journal published 11 times a year. It develops voluntary national standards, including information technology standards, to improve the productivity and competitiveness of industrial concerns in the United States. ASIS fosters the improvement of the information transfer process and focuses on research and education. Members include information specialists, librarians, and others interested in information storage and retrieval. A binary code for text as well as for the storage and transmission of data. ASCII is used for information interchange among data processing systems.

As a text file, it is the opposite of a binary file. See also Graphics file. Employers are required to offer reasonable accommodation to those with a disability. Standards for public access to buildings and services for the disabled are addressed. For example, shelving width and height of computer terminals are two issues related to the ADA standards for library media centers. Amplifier: A sound system device used to enhance an electronic signal, such as loud speakers. Analog: An electronic signal produced and transmitted according to a continuous and varying waveform.

Conventional television, videocassette recorders, and telephones use analog transmission.


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Digital transmission is a more recent technology. Analytic entry: A catalog record or access point for a work that is part of a larger bibliographic unit; for example, one song on a sound recording that contains several songs. Andrew Carnegie Award: An award given to the most distinguished American videotape for children produced in the preceding year. These rules are more commonly referred to as Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd edition, revised. See also Access point.

These still images are placed in motion by the juxtaposition of a series of pictures that have small, incremental changes from one picture to the next. See also Image. Headings are given in the first volume of Library of Congress Subject Headings. A separate publication of these headings is also available. See also Annotated Card program and Subject heading.

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See also Annotated Card headings and Subject heading. Annotation: A summary of a work, such as a book, that may be a part of a bibliography or catalog entry. Annual: A serial published once a year. Annual report: A document that summarizes the activities, services, programs, expenditures, and circulation records, among other topics, of a library media center for a period of one year. Annual review: A publication containing articles and research on a particular topic or a particular field during a one-year period.

Anonymous: An unidentified source; of unknown authorship or origin.

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Anonymous file transfer protocol Anonymous FTP : An application used to transfer files between two computers on the Internet. Many Internet sites have established publicly accessible material that can be obtained through FTP; the user logs on using the account name of anonymous. These sites are called anonymous FTP servers. See also Archie and File transfer protocol. The collection may include works by several authors or be limited to a particular subject. Anthropomorphism: Giving human qualities to animals. See also Personification.

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Antivirus software: Computer software that scans for viruses; the software removes any viruses and may repair damage they have caused. This software is continually updated because new viruses emerge constantly. The user needs to purchase the updates frequently to protect computer programs. See also Virus.

Antonym: A word that means the opposite of another word. For example, the opposite of good is bad. See also Homonym and Synonym. AP classes: See Advanced placement classes. Aperture: 1. The opening in a scanner through which the reflected light exits to read a barcode. The opening of a camera lens through which light passes. See also F-stop. Appendix: Supplementary material attached at the end of a work. Examples of this supplementary material are graphs, tables, clarifying examples, and additional resources. Application: A computer program written to perform a specific function such as word processing, acquisition, circulation, or cataloging.

Approval plan: An arrangement with a publisher or jobber to supply material in a particular category as requested by the library media specialist. See also Anonymous file transfer protocol. Architectural barrier: Any obstacle in or near a building that makes the building or its resources inaccessible to the physically disabled. Archive copy: A copy of a computer program or file to be stored while using the original program.

Data are copied onto a disk or streaming tape as a backup or a historical copy. Archives: 1. Historical records of an organization. The area where historical documents are stored. Some public libraries have an Archives Department. The agency responsible for selecting, preserving, and providing access to historical records. Some states have an archives agency. Archivist: The person who collects and maintains historical records and documents. The eight areas to address for the descriptive cataloging of an item are: Area 1: Title and statement of responsibility; Area 2: Edition; Area 3: Material specific details; Area 4: Publication, distribution, etc.

See also Physical description area and Publication and distribution area. It makes all the decisions for the microprocessor based on the mathematical computations and logic functions it performs. Responses to messages for education information occur within 48 hours. Aspect ratio: The width to height ratio of a display screen or of an image. It can refer to a television screen or to a computer monitor.

The enlargement, reduction, or transferring of images may force images into different aspect ratios and cause distortion. For example, converting a motion picture for television viewing may result in distortion. Assessment: 1. An evaluation of a collection or a school library media program. It may be formal or informal and may measure effectiveness, quality, or both. An evaluation of student or staff performance.

A variety of techniques and instruments measure the learning and performance of students and teachers. Some types of assessment are authentic assessment, criterionreferenced assessment, needs assessment, norm-referenced assessment, performance assessment, portfolio assessment, qualitative assessment, and quantitative assessment.

See also Performance appraisal. The association is concerned with the use of educational technology and its application to the learning process. Members include teachers, instructional media specialists, audiovisual personnel, and others. Publications include Educational Technology Research and Development, a quarterly, and TechTrends, published six times a year. See also Division of School Media and Technology. ASCD focuses on research and professional development in curriculum and supervision.

Members include supervisors, curriculum coordinators, education professors, classroom teachers, principals, superintendents, and others. Publications include Educational Leadership, published eight times a year, and the quarterly Journal of Curriculum and Supervision. It encourages professional development among the membership and promotes the improvement of library resources and services.

Assonance: Repetition of vowel sounds. See also Alliteration. A high-quality audio and video signal can be delivered at 1. Asynchronous communication: Electronic communication characterized by a time delay between the posting and the receipt of information. The opposite of this is synchronous communication, where two or more parties are communicating simultaneously and interactively; that is, in real time.

Atlas: A collection of maps that often includes some geographical information. See also Map. At-risk: A term used to refer to students who have a higher than average possibility of dropping out of or failing school. These students may include inner-city, low-income, and special-needs children as well as those for whom English is not a native language. Attachment: A file that is transmitted through an electronic mail message. Attention deficit disorder ADD : A condition of an individual marked by inattention, problems staying on task, and difficulty focusing on conversations and activities.

See also Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD : A condition of an individual marked by hyperactivity, inability to control behavior, and constant movement as well as the symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Attention span: The length of time an individual is able to concentrate on a task such as listening, taking notes, or using a skill.


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Audio: The sound portion of various forms of media such as television, computers, videotape, or film. See also Video. Audio head: A magnetic element in a cassette tape recorder that records or plays back sound. Audio mixer: An electronic component that combines sound from two or more sources. Audiocassette: A tape that has only sound audio and is contained inside a plastic cover. It is played by using an audiocassette player.

Audioconferencing: A teleconference using voice-only communications. A telephone call links two or more sites. In most cases standard telephone lines and speaker phones are used. Formerly called a conference call. See also Teleconferencing.

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Audiotape: Mylar plastic tape on which sound audio is encoded. Because the tape is covered with iron oxide, the sound can be encoded as magnetic signals. Audiovisual AV : Refers to both the audiovisual hardware such as a cassette tape player or videocassette recorder and the audiovisual software such as CD-ROM or cassette tape. Audiovisual hardware: Refers to the equipment, such as the filmstrip projector, cassette tape player, videocassette recorder, or computer, that either plays or accesses information from the audiovisual software. Audiovisual material: See Audiovisual software.

Audiovisual software: Nonprint materials, such as videotape, CD-ROM, or filmstrip, that need specific hardware to be used. Synonymous with audiovisual material. See also Audiovisual hardware.

Meet Your Subject Specialist

Audiovisual specialist: The person in the library media center who is responsible for the audiovisual software and the audiovisual hardware necessary for using the audiovisual software. Auditory learner: Refers to a type of learner who learns primarily by hearing. Lectures, audiotapes, and records are useful to this type of learner. See also Learning style. The student is required to perform a task or learn a body of material. Portfolios, interviews, performances, and tests can be examples of authentic assessment. See also Assessment.

Authentic learning: Refers to meaningful learning in which students solve real-world problems or challenging tasks. Higher order thinking skills are required instead of rote memorization. Students are able to organize and prioritize, to demonstrate problem-solving skills, and to work with others. Author: The person chiefly responsible for the intellectual or artistic content of a work. Examples of a personal author are a writer of a book, an artist, or a composer. See also Joint author. Author entry: The name of the author of a work used as an entry in the library catalog.

In most cases, this is used as the main entry for a bibliographic record. Author number: A system used in most library media centers to arrange items in alphabetical order on the shelf. It is sometimes called the book number. Authoring language: A computer language used for creating computer-assisted instruction quickly and easily.

Two examples are Authorware and HyperCard. Authoring system: See Authoring language. Authority control: The process of establishing consistent access points. Various forms of headings are grouped under a designated heading to ensure consistency. The process is used with personal names, corporate bodies, titles, series, and subject headings. Authority file: A file containing the official forms of names, uniform titles, series titles, or subject headings, or all of these, used as access points in a library catalog.

The purpose is to maintain consistent headings. Cross-references to variant forms not used as access points are indicated. See also Access point and Crossreference. See also Biography. Automatic focus: A feature on most cameras, video cameras, and camcorders that automatically makes minor adjustments to the focal length; this feature eliminates the need to focus the camera manually.

See also Integrated Library System. Auxiliary table: In classification of materials, a table of subdivisions intended to be used with numbers from the main schedules. There are several auxiliary tables. AV: See Audiovisual. It can be used for a video connector. Back issue: An issue of a periodical that precedes the current issue. Back light: 1. Light used in photography that is used behind the subject or is focused on the background. It adds contrast and creates a three-dimensional effect. A feature on some camcorders that will increase the video signal to compensate for subjects who are not well lighted.

See also Fill light and Key light. Back order: An order to purchase material that is not currently available. The publisher or distributor will supply the item s at a later date.

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Backbone: The primary, highest level infrastructure of an electronic network where secondary network systems feed in and out. For example, a K school local area network might feed into and take from a state-operated backbone. Back-to-Basics: A movement whose advocates stress a return to the basic subjects such as reading, writing, and mathematics. The number of electives should be reduced, and all courses should have high standards. Declining test scores and the lowering of academic standards led to these concerns.

Backup: A procedure for making a duplicate copy of a software program or a data file. The duplicate copy is available in case the original is corrupted, destroyed, or lost. Library media specialists should maintain backup records of circulation daily and cataloging records biweekly or as often as possible after each cataloging session. Automatic backups may be set on the computer so that, for example, after 50 circulation transactions, the data are automatically backed up on the internal disk drive.

Backup data may be stored on floppy disks or streaming tape. See also Floppy disk. Backup power supply: A battery-powered device that provides power to a computer when the normal AC power fails. The harmonious arrangement of the visual elements in a work of art. The proper relationship between the level of two sound sources or among the level of more than two sound sources. Ballad: Developed during the Middle Ages in Europe, the ballad is a form of narrative folk song. Modern ballads are poems that are read instead of sung.

See also Poetry. Band: A range of frequencies used for transmitting a signal. A band is identified by its lower and upper limits. For example, a 10MHz band in the to MHz range. See also Frequency. Bandwidth: The amount of information that a cable or electronic system can transmit at one time. For example, a telephone cable with a narrow bandwidth might be able to handle only one telephone call at a time; a cable with a wide bandwidth might handle calls at one time. Higher bandwidths can carry more information than lower bandwidths. It is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that a system can transmit.

The difference is measured in cycles per second hertz or bits per second bps. Banned book: A book that has been removed or prohibited from a library media center. See also Challenged material. Banned Books Week: An annual promotion celebrating the freedom to read. The event is also endorsed by the Center for the Book of the Library of Congress. These groups sponsor this week, typically in September, to draw attention to the importance of access to all types of information in a free society.

Barcode: Small, parallel vertical lines that a scanner can read and interpret. Items and patrons in the library media center are assigned barcode numbers. Barcodes can be entered into the computer either electronically using a scanner or by manually keying in the numbers. See also Dumb barcode and Smart barcode. Barcode reader: See Barcode scanner. Barcode scanner: A device used to read or enter, or both, a barcode number into a computer.

Also called a barcode reader. See also Scanner. See also Auxiliary table. Batch processing: A process in which computer records are grouped together and processed together at one time. In a library media center, the printing of overdue notices may be a batch process. The award, which began in , is named for Mildred L. Batchelder, a former executive director of the Association for Library Service to Children. Baud rate: The number of bits a modem can send or receive per second.

It is a redundant reference to baud because baud is a rate. The term is derived from the name of Emil Baudot, a nineteenth-century inventor. The higher the number for the baud rate, the faster data are transmitted. Only at slower speeds are the baud rate and the bits per second bps synonymous. At higher speeds, more bps can be transmitted than the baud rate. Therefore, baud is outdated, and bits per second is the more current term. BBS: See Bulletin board system. Beast tale: A type of folktale in which animals act and talk like human beings. Behavior modification: Techniques used to attempt to change the behavior of individuals or groups.

Desirable behavior is reinforced with rewards, and undesirable behavior is usually eliminated by lack of reward or by punishment. Behavioral objective: See Performance objective. Behaviorism: A school of psychology that believes only observable behavior should be objectively studied. It is opposed to the subjective study of introspection. John Watson and B. Skinner were two well-known psychologists who promoted behaviorism.

Beta: A half-inch videotape format that was formerly made primarily for home use. However, the VHS format is the current one in use. See also Video home system. Beta Phi Mu: A national professional honor society for library science founded in Annual meetings are held in conjunction with the American Library Association. With chapters organized in most states, the society provides scholarships and bestows the annual Distinguished Service to Library Education Award.

Beta testing: The second test of a software product performed by users in real situations. These tests are performed after the manufacturers have conducted alpha tests. Beta testing is the final test before the product is released for sale by the manufacturer. See also Alpha testing. BI: See Bibliographic instruction. Biannual: A serial that is published twice a year. Bibliographer: One who prepares bibliographies i.

See also Bibliography. Bibliographic: Refers to the creation and management of records describing items in a library or database. Bibliographic citation: The complete information about an item written according to the format listed in a recognized style manual.

Bibliographic control: The process of creating, organizing, and maintaining records of items in the library media center to facilitate access to the items by the users. Bibliographic data: See Bibliographic information. Bibliographic database: Contains author, title, source, subject, and related information about a document, but not the full text of the document. Save to:. Save Create a List. Create a list. Save Back. The Teacher Store Cart.

Checkout Now. Grades PreK—K , 1—2 , 3—5 , 6—8. Language Arts Storia This Scholastic e-reader app is designed just for kids. View not found. Download the PDF from here. Amazon Global Store US International products have separate terms, are sold from abroad and may differ from local products, including fit, age ratings, and language of product, labeling or instructions. Manufacturer warranty may not apply Learn more about Amazon Global Store. Review "As a one-stop reference tool, [this book] will become invaluable to new and more experienced school library media specialists as well as to library media students, educators, media center paraprofessionals and clerks.

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