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Guide Steam, hot-water, and gas distribution systems : repairs and utilities

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The job of the temperature-pressure TP relief valve is to release excessive pressure from steam buildup, but this valve may have been improperly installed, or it may be faulty. Either way, this condition can be dangerous, both because hot water and steam can scald people and because the water heater could rupture.

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If your water has a strange odor, first determine whether the problem is with the source water or the water heater. If the problem is with both the hot and the cold water, or if only the cold water smells, the problem is more likely with your source water. Iron, copper, and other minerals can cause discoloration in water.

Let the hot water run for two or three minutes. If it smells a bit like rotten eggs, you can try flushing the hot water heater tank see How to Flush a Water Heater. A flexible anode rod, available through Amazon, is easier than a long, rigid one to insert into a water heater if there is limited space above the tank. If you need help, call a water heater repair person. If you smell a garlic-like scent, the pilot light may have gone out. Turn the gas valve control to OFF you may have to push down to turn it. Wait until the gas smell has dissipated before relighting the pilot light.

When heated, dissolved hard water minerals recrystallize and form scale that cakes onto interior surfaces, making the water heater less efficient and more likely to fail. To minimize corrosive minerals through ionization, water heaters have a magnesium or aluminum anode rod as discussed above , inserted through the top of the tank.

To avoid scale in the first place, every few months flush out the water heater tank. These sounds are caused by the buildup of hard water sediment heating up and exploding inside the tank.

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If you have an electric water heater, these sounds could indicate a buildup of scale on your heating elements; it may be time to replace these. If water sounds like it is boiling inside the tank, this could indicate overheating and a dangerous pressure buildup. Call a service professional immediately. Set the temperature control to about degrees F. To minimize the energy it takes to heat the water, insulate your water pipes if they run a long way from your heater to your faucets.

Search form Search. Trouble Shooting guides are intended for use by Licensed Professional Installers. Electric Gas. Check with utility if necessary Wrong wiring connections at heater terminal Correct according to manufacturer's instructions Leaks around heating elements 1 Tighten element 2 If necessary, clean and replace with new gasket Loose wiring connection Locate loose connections. Clean carefully remove all oxidation.

Reconnect properly Lightning Inspect: 1 fuse or circuit breaker. Drain tank. Check to see if water treatment is necessary Lime formation on elements Clean elements, replace if necessary check to see if water treatment is necessary Thermostat not flush to and in contact with tank Position properly.

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Be sure insulation covers thermostat before replacing access panel Loose wiring connection Locate loose connections. Reconnect properly Poor ground Install proper ground. See "grounding instructions" below Thermostat set too low Turn temperature knob to desired temp. Tank should be flushed periodically Improper calibration Replace thermostat Long runs of exposed piping Insulate piping Hot water piping in outside walls Insulate piping Faulty thermostat Replace Faulty thermal cutout Replace.

Be sure insulation covers thermostat before replacing access panel Thermostat set too high Turn temperature knob to desired temp. REASON REMEDY Undersized heater Replace heater with one of adequate capacity for future as well as present needs Leaking faucets, leaking heater nipples and or leaking tank drain Locate and correct Leaks around heating elements 1 Tighten bolts 2 If necessary, clean and replace with new gasket Insulation improperly replace Adjust insulation to original factory condition add new insulation if necessary Thermostat not flush to and in contact with tank Position properly.

Be sure insulation covers thermostat before replacing access panel. Check to see if water treatment is necessary Excessive water pressure Install proper pressure reducing valve and proper pressure relief valve Surge from automatic washer solenoid valve Install blind pipe air cushion Improper calibration Replace thermostat Faulty thermostat Replace.

How to Install an Indirect Water Heater on a Boiler - Ask This Old House

See "grounding instructions" below Lightning Inspect: 1 fuse or circuit breaker. Be sure insulation covers thermostat before replacing access panel Thermostat and elements not properly insulated Adjust insulation to cover thermostat and element terminal.

Add insulation if necessary Thermostat set too low Turn temperature knob to desired temp. The existing central heating plant, shown in Figure 1, is approaching 60 years old. The central coal-fired heating plant generates steam that is distributed throughout the campus to heat the buildings from September through May.

Each building uses a gas-fired summer boiler to meet heating requirements during the rest of the year. The central heating plant is shut down in the summer months when minimal heating is required as it relates to keeping a large steam and condensate system in year-round operation. A stringent study Table1 was conducted for the design of a new heating system that would be safe, reliable, sustainable, efficient, and cost-effective in replacing the aging central steam heating system.

The new system also needed to satisfy both near-term and projected future space conditioning requirements of the campus. The electric and natural gas energy uses of the systems were totaled to estimate their annual operating costs.

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Initial costs for equipment, distribution piping, installation, and plant construction were estimated for each option as well. The campus steam demand typically peaked below 60, pounds per hour PPH ; however, plant operators reported that on rare occasions in the past, the steam load approached 70, PPH. Pipe distribution system losses were included in the steam load, and because of the poor condition of the piping distribution system, there were times where the distribution losses were significant.

The higher steam demand was probably associated with the combination of higher losses from leaking pipes during periods of very cold weather. By reviewing steam records during periods with no space heating and little water heating, we estimate that, on average, the steam load associated with distribution losses was approximately 6, PPH.

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These losses were steady throughout the year, hour after hour, while the steam distribution system was energized. If steam or condensate leaks developed, distribution losses increased until the necessary repairs were made. In the future, there will be added heat load as a result of buildings being added to the campus.

However, there will a reduction in steam use through energy improvements in existing and replacement buildings, and reduced losses as a result of new steam distribution piping replacing the old pipe.

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Improved controls on major steam loads will also decrease the peak campus steam demand by scheduling the steam load to occur at different times. Consequently, the peak campus steam demand was expected to remain below 60, PPH in the foreseeable future. To verify the heating load for the campus, a peak heating demand for each building was estimated.

When the building heating load for each building was added with the estimated distributed losses, the total load was approximately 62, MBh, which confirmed the estimates developed from the steam generation records described above. Option 4 was selected because it provides the lowest initial cost and the lowest annual operating costs of the four, taking advantage of several key benefits:. Also, this configuration uses six sets of smaller hot water condensing boilers to supply low-temperature hot water LTHW to clusters of one to six buildings near-term.